It’s a Wonderful Life

It’s a Wonderful Life is a 1946 American Christmas fantasy comedy-drama movie Produced and directed by Frank Capra , based on the short story ” The Greatest Gift “, qui Philip Van Doren Stern wrote in 1939 and published privately in 1945. [3] The film is considered one of the most loved films in American cinema and has become traditional during the Christmas season.

The film stars James Stewart as George Bailey , a man who has given up his dreams in order to help others and whose imminent suicide on Christmas Eve presents the intervention of his guardian angel , Clarence Odbody ( Henry Travers ). Clarence shows George all the lives he has touched and how different life in his community of Bedford Falls would be had he never been born.

The film is in the process of being produced by the filmmakers of the film industry, because the film has been produced by the filmmakers and the filmmakers. [4] Theatrically, the film’s break-even point was $ 6.3 million, a relatively high production cost, a figure that came out of its initial release. An appraisal in 2006 reported: “Although it was not a complete box office, it was initially decided that it was initially that made his movies the must-see, money-making events they once were. ” [5]

It’s a Wonderful Life is one of the most critically acclaimed movies ever made . It was Nominated for five Academy Awards Including Best Picture and has-been reconnu by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 best American movies ever made , [3] Placing number 11 is icts original 1998 greatest movie list , and Would aussi up number one on the listof the most inspirational American movies of all time. [6] Capra revealed that this is his personal favorite among the films he has been filming for his family every Christmas season. [7]

Plot

On Christmas Eve 1945, in Bedford Falls, NY, George Bailey is suicidal. Prayers for him to reach Heaven, where Clarence Odbody, Angel 2nd Class, is assigned to save. To prepare, Clarence is shown flashbacks of George’s life. The first is in 1919, when 12-year-old George saves his younger brother Harry, who falls through the ice on a frozen pond, from drowning; George loses his hearing in one ear as a result. While working at the local drug store, George Gower, Dr. Gower, has been accidentally added to his child’s prescription drug, and has been injected to stop it from causing harm.

On Harry’s graduation night in 1928, George talks to Mary Hatch, who has had a crush on him from an early age. They are interrupted by his father’s death. George postpones Bailey Brothers’ Building and Loan , a longtime competitor to Henry F. Potter , the local banker and the richest man in town. Potter wishes to dissolve the Building and Loan to take over its business. George convinces the board of directors to vote against Potter. They agree, on condition that George runs the business, along with his absent-minded Uncle Billy. George and Mary get married. On Their Way to Their honeymoon, They witness a run on the bank and use their honeymoon savings to lend support to the Building and Loan until the bank reopens.

Over time George establishes Bailey Park, Bailey Building, Bailey Building, Bailey Building, Bailey Building, Bailey Building, Bailey Building Potter, frustrated at losing control of the housing market, attempts to lure George into becoming his assistant; George is momentarily tempted, but rejects the offer.

During World War II , George is ineligible for service because of his bad ear. Harry becomes a Navy pilot and shoots down a kamikaze plane that would have bombed an amphibious transport; he is awarded the Medal of Honor . On Christmas Eve morning 1945, the town prepares for hero’s welcome for Harry. Uncle Billy goes to Potter ‘s bank to deposit $ 8,000 for the Building and Loan. (The $ 8,000 was worth over $ 100,000 in 2017 dollars. [8]Potter, taking his newspaper and bragging about Harry being on the front page; the banker angrily grabs the newspaper Billy has unintentionally tucked the envelope containing the money. Upon seeing the money, Potter realizes the potential scandal could lead to the Building and Loan’s downfall. Potter hides the money, knowing its loss will cause severe financial problems for the Building and Loan. When Uncle Billy can not find the money, he and George frantically search for it. When the bank examines their records, George Berates his uncle for endangering the Building and Loan, goes home and takes out his frustration on his family. He apologizes to his wife and children, then leaves.

George desperately appeals to Potter for a loan. When George offers his life as a collateral policy, Potter says George is worth more than dead and alive. George gets drunk at a local bar and is involved in a fight before he leaves and goes to a nearby bridge, thinking of suicide. The film’s narrative catches up to the time of the opening scene. Before he can jump, Clarence dives into the river just before George does, causing George to rescue Clarence rather than killing himself. George does not believe Clarence’s subsequent claim to be his guardian angel .

When George says he wishes he had never been born, Clarence decides to grant his wish and show George an alternate timeline in which he never existed. Bedford Falls is named Pottersville and is a less congenial place. Mr. Gower has been released from prison for manslaughter , because he was poisoned in the pills. The Building and Loan has closed down, George never took over Mr. Bailey’s passing.

George’s mother does not recognize him; She reveals that Uncle Billy was institutionalized after the collapse of the Building and Loan. In the cemetery where Bailey Park would have been, George discovers the grave of his brother. It was never enough to save Harry because Harry had never saved Harry from drowning. Mary never married; when George says he is her husband, she screams for the police, causing George to flee and the local police to give chase.

George, now convinced that is really his guardian angel, runs back to the bridge and begs for his life back; the alternate timeline changes back to the original reality. George runs home to await his arrest. Mary and Uncle Billy arrives, having rallied the townspeople, who donates more than enough to cover the missing $ 8,000 and for Potter’s warrant to be torn up. Harry arrives and toasts George. A bell on the Christmas tree rings, and his daughter recalls a story that says the sound means that it has earned its wings, meaning Clarence’s promotion.

Cast

Credited Cast

  • James Stewart as George Bailey
  • Donna Reed as Mary Hatch Bailey
  • Henry Travers as Clarence Odbody
  • Lionel Barrymore as Mr. Henry F. Potter
  • Thomas Mitchell as Uncle Billy Bailey
  • Beulah Bondi and Ma Bailey
  • Frank Faylen as Ernie Bishop, the cab driver
  • Ward Bond as Bert, the cop
  • Gloria Grahame as Violet Bick
  • HB Warner as Mr. Emil Gower
  • Todd Karns as Harry Bailey
  • Samuel S. Hinds as father Peter “Pop” Bailey
  • Lillian Randolph as Annie, maid
  • Frank Albertson and Sam Wainwright
  • Virginia Patton and Ruth Dakin Bailey, Harry’s wife
  • Mary Treen as Cousin Tilly, employee
  • Charles Williams as Cousin Eustace, employee
  • Sarah Edwards as Mrs. Hatch, Mary’s mother
  • William Edmunds as Mr. Giuseppe Martini
  • Argentina Brunetti as Mrs. Martini
  • Bobby Anderson as Little George Bailey
  • Ronnie Ralph as Little Sam Wainwright
  • Jean Gale as Little Mary Hatch
  • Ray Walker as Joe
  • Jeanine Ann Roose [9] as Little Violet Bick
  • George Nokes as Little Harry Bailey
  • Danny Mummert as Little Marty Hatch
  • Sheldon Leonard as Nick, the bartender
  • Frank Hagney and Potter’s mute help
  • Charles Lane as Potter’s rent collector
  • Jimmy Hawkins as Tommy Bailey
  • Karolyn Grimes as Zuzu Bailey
  • Larry Simms as Pete Bailey
  • Carol Coomes (AKC Carol Coombs) as Janie Bailey

Uncredited Cast

  • Charles Halton as Mr. Carter, bank examine
  • J. Farrell MacDonald as the man whose grandfather planted the tree that George drives into
  • Harry Holman as Mr. Partridge, College teacher
  • Harold Landon as Marty Hatch, Mary’s brother
  • Carl “Alfalfa” Freddie Switzer (Mary’s annoying high school suitor)
  • Mark Roberts as Mickey (student with the key to open up pool)
  • Max Wagner as Cashier / Bouncer at Nick’s Bar
  • Dick Elliott as fat man on porch
  • Tom Fadden as Bridge Caretaker
  • Stanley Andrews as Mr. Welch, teacher’s husband
  • Al Bridge as Sheriff with arrest warrant
  • Ellen Corby as Miss Davis
  • Marian Carr and Jane Wainwright, Sam’s wifet [10]
  • Adriana Caselotti as the singer in Martini’s Bar [11] [N 2]
  • Joseph Granby and Angel Joseph (voice)
  • Moroni Olsen as the Senior Angel (voice)

The contention that James Stewart is often referred to as Capra’s only choice to play George Bailey is disputed by Stephen Cox, who says ” Henry Fonda was in the running.” [12] [13]

Although it was stated that Jean Arthur , Ann Dvorak and Ginger Rogers were all considered for the role of Mary before Donna Reed won the share, this list is also disputed by Cox it’s a commitment to Olivia from Havilland , Martha Scott and Ann Dvorak. Ginger Rogers was offered the female lead, but turned it down because she considered it “too bland”. In Chapter 26 of her autobiography Ginger: My Story , she asks her decision by asking her readers: “Foolish, you say?”

A long list of actors have been considered for Potter’s (named after Herbert Potter): Edward Arnold , Charles Bickford , Edgar Buchanan , Louis Calhern , Victor Jory , Raymond Massey, Vincent Price and even Thomas Mitchell . [13] However, Lionel Barrymore, who eventually won the role, was a famous Ebenezer Scrooge in radio dramatizations of A Christmas Carol at the time and was a natural choice for the role. Barrymore had also worked with Capra on his 1938 Best Picture Oscar winner, You Can not Take It With You .

HB Warner , who was a drug addict. Mr. Gower. He was also in some of Capra’s other films, including Mr. Deeds Goes to Town , Lost Horizon , You Can not Take It With You , and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington . [14] In the silent era, He Had played the role of Jesus Christ in Cecil B. DeMille ‘s The King of Kings (1927). The name Gower came from Capra’s employer Columbia Pictures , which was located on Gower Streetfor many years. Also on Gower Street was a drugstore that was a favorite for the studio’s employees. [15]

Charles Williams, who was cast as Eustace Bailey, and Mary Treen, who was cast as Matilda “Tilly” Bailey, were both B-list actors, as they both had appeared in 90 films each before filming It’s a Wonderful Life . [16]

Jimmy the Raven (Uncle Billy’s pet) Appeared in You Can not Take It with You and Each subsequent Capra film. [12] [17]

Production

Background

The original story ” The Greatest Gift ” was written by Philip Van Doren Stern in November 1939. After being unsuccessful in getting the story published, it was decided to make a Christmas card, and mailed 200 copies to family and friends in December 1943. [18] [N 3] The story came to the attention of RKO producer David Hempstead, who showed it to Cary Grant’s Hollywood agent, and in April 1944, RKO Pictures bought the rights to the story for $ 10,000, hoping to turn the story into a vehicle for Grant. [20] RKO created three unsatisfactory scripts before shelving the film, and Grant went on to make another Christmas movie staple, The Bishop’s Wife[N 4] [22]

At the suggestion of RKO Charles Koerner, Frank Capra reads “The Greatest Gift” and immediately saw its potential. RKO, anxious to unload the project, in 1945 Libra Films , which had a nine-film distribution agreement with RKO, for $ 10,000, [N 5] and threw in the three scripts for free. [18] Capra, along with writers Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett , with Jo Swerling , Michael Wilson , and Dorothy Parker Brought in to “polish” the script, [24] turned the Story and What Was worth using from the three scripts into a screenplay that capra would renameIt’s a Wonderful Life . [18] The script underwent many revisions throughout pre-production and during filming. [25] Final screenplay credit went to Goodrich, Hackett and Capra, with “additional scenes” by Jo Swerling.

Seneca Falls, New York claims that when Frank Capra visited their town in 1945, he was inspired to model Bedford Falls after it. The town has an annual “It’s a Wonderful Life festival” in December. [26] In mid-2009, The Hotel Clarence opened in Seneca Falls, named for George Bailey’s guardian angel. On December 10, 2010, the “It’s a Wonderful Life” Museum opened in Seneca Falls, with Karolyn Grimes, who played Zuzu in the movie, cutting the ribbon. [27]

Both James Stewart (from Indiana, Pennsylvania ) and Donna Reed (from Denison, Iowa ) came from small towns. Stewart’s father ran a small hardware store where James worked for years. Reed demonstrated his rural roots by winning an impromptu bet with Lionel Barrymore when he challenged her to milk a cow on set. [28]

Filming

It’s a Wonderful Life Was shot at RKO Radio Pictures Studio in Culver City, California , and the 89 acre RKO movie ranch in Encino , [29] where “Bedford Falls” consisted of Art Director Max Ree ‘s Oscar -winning sets Originally designed for the 1931 epic movie Cimarron that covered 4 acres (1.6 ha), with a main street stretching 300 yards (three city blocks), with 75 stores and buildings, and a residential neighborhood. [30] For It’s a Wonderful LifeCapra built a working bank set, added a tree-lined center parkway, and planted 20 full grown oak trees to existing sets. [31]

Pigeons, cats, and dogs were allowed to roam the mammoth set in order to give the “town” a lived-in feel. [17] Due to the requirement to film in an “alternate universe”, the set was extremely adaptable. RKO created “chemical snow” for the film in order to avoid the need for dubbed dialogue. [32] Filming started on April 15, 1946 and ended on July 27, 1946, exactly on deadline for the 90-day main photography schedule. [21]

RKO ‘s movie ranch in Encino , a rental of filming “Bedford Falls” Was razed in 1954. [N 6] There are only two surviving locations from the movie. The first is the swimming pool that was unveiled during the famous dance scene where George Short Mary. It is located in the gymnasium at Beverly Hills High School and is still in operation as of 2013. The second is the “Martini home”, in La Canada Flintridge, California . [34]

Uncle Billy gets drunk at Harry and Ruth’s welcome home / newlyweds’ party, George points him in the right direction home. As the camera focuses on George, smiling at his uncle staggering away, Uncle Billy yells, “I’m all right!” Equipment on the set had been accidentally knocked over; Capra left in Thomas Mitchell’s impromptu ad lib (though the “crashing” noise was added with added sound effects).

Dimitri Tiomkin had written “Death Telegram” and “Gower’s Deliverance” for the drugstore scenes, but in the editing room Capra elected to go with no music for those scenes. Tiomkin and Capra. Tiomkin had worked on a lot of Capra’s previous films, and was saddened that Capra decided to have the music pared or toned down, moved, or cut entirely. He felt as though his work was being seen as a suggestion. In his autobiography Please do not Hate Me , he said of the incident, “an all around scissors job”. [35]

Gower’s drugstore include Coca-Cola , Paterson tobacco pipes, The Unica cigars, Camel cigarettes , Lucky Strike cigarettes , Chesterfield cigarettes , Sweet Corporal cigarettes (with a sign that says “Ask Dad he knows” that plays In the plot), Vaseline hair tonic, Penetro syrup cough, Pepto-Bismol , Bayer Aspirin (“for colds and influenza”), and The Saturday Evening Post . [36]

In a previous draft of the script, the scene where George knows his brother Harry has a child was different. Potter’s property as potter watches with disdain. George shoots the puck, but it goes astray and breaks the “No Trespassing” sign and lands in Potter’s yard. Potter becomes irate, and the gardener releases the attack dogs, which causes the boys to flee. Harry falls in the ice, and George saves him with the same results. [37]

Another scene that was in an earlier version of the script. George visiting his father at his work. After George tells off Mr. Potter and closes the door, he looks for Uncle Billy about his drugstore dilemma. Billy is talking on the phone to the bank, and lights his cigar and throws his match in the wastebasket. This scene explains that Tilly (and Billy’s kids though), and Tilly is on the phone with her friend Martha and says, “Potter’s here, the bank is looking for coming. . ” As George is on the subject of Tilly on the phone, Billy cries for help and Tilly runs in and out with a pot of coffee. George decides he is probably better off dealing with the situation by himself. [35]

Capra had been filmed by a number of sequences that were subsequently cut, the only remaining remnants being still unearthed. [38] A number of alternative endings were considered, with Capra’s first script having Bailey falling to his knees reciting “The Lord’s Prayer ” (the script also called for an opening scene with the townspeople in prayer). Feeling that an overly religious tone did not have the emotional impact of the family and friends rushing to rescue George Bailey, the closing scenes were rewritten. [39] [40] [41]

Reception

It’s a Wonderful Life premiered at the Globe Theater in New York on December 20, 1946, to mixed reviews. [21] While there is no question about the reality of the world, ” Time is wonderful ” ( [42] Time said, ” It’s a Wonderful Life. ” It’s a formidable rival (Goldwyn’s The Best Years of Our Lives ) as Director of Capra’s inventiveness, humor and affection for human beings, “Keep it glowing with life and excitement.” [43]

Bosley Crowther , writing for The New York Times , complimented some of the actors, including Stewart and Reed, but concluded that “the weakness of this picture, from this reviewer’s point of view, is the sentimentality of it-its illusory concept of life. Mr. Capra’s nice people are very easy to understand, but they are more likely to find their way to the world than they are. [44]

The film, qui Went into general release on January 7, 1947 Placed 26th ($ 3.3 million) in box office revenues for 1947 [2] (out of more than 400 features released), [45] one spot ahead of Reviews another Christmas film, Miracle on 34th Street . The film was supposed to be released in January 1947, but was moved up to December 1946 to make it eligible for the 1946 Academy Awards . This move was seen as worse for the movie, as 1947 did not have quite the stiff competition as 1946. If it had entered the 1947 Awards, its greatest competition would have been Miracle on 34th Street . The number one grossing movie of 1947, The Best Years of Our Lives , made $ 11.5 million. [2]

The film recorded a loss of $ 525,000 at the box office for RKO. [46]

On May 26, 1947, the FBI issued a memo stating “With a look at the picture” It’s a Wonderful Life “, [redacted] stated in substance that the film is shown to be more obvious attempts to discredit bankers by casting Lionel Barrymore as a scrooge- “In the same way, it is a common trick used by Communists. [In] addition, [redacted] stated that, in his opinion, this picture deliberately maligned the upper class, attempting to show the people who had money were mean and despicable characters. ” [47] [48]

In an interview with Michael Parkinson in 1973 Jimmy Stewart Declared that out of all the movies He Had Made, It’s a Wonderful Life Was His favorite.

In 1990, It’s a Wonderful Life was deemed “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant” by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in their National Film Registry .

In 2002 Britain’s Channel 4 Official It’s a Wonderful Life as the seventh greatest movie ever made in icts poll “The 100 Greatest Movies” and in 2006, the movie atteint No. 37 in the Saami channel’s “100 Greatest Family Films”.

In June 2008, AFI revealed its 10 Top 10 , the best ten films in ten “classic” American film genres, after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. It’s a Wonderful Life was recognized as the third-best movie in the genre fantasy. [49] [50]

Somewhat more iconoclastic views of the film and its content are. In 1947, film critic Manny Farber wrote, “To make his points [Capra] always takes an easy, simple-minded path that does not give much credit to the intelligence of the audience”, and adds that there are only a few unsentimental moments here and there. ” [51] [N 7] Wendell Jamieson, in a 2008 article for The New York Timeswhich is generally positive in its analysis of the film, commenting that it is simply a sweet sentimental story, it is a terrifying, asphyxiating story about growing up and relinquishing your dreams, of seeing your father driven to the grave before his time, of living among bitter, it’s a story of being trapped, of compromising, of watching others move ahead, and so on, of being so filled with rage that you verbally abuse your children, their teacher and your oppressively perfect wife. ” [52]

In a 2010 Salon.com piece, Richard Cohen describes It’s a Wonderful Life as “the most terrifying Hollywood movie ever made”. In the “Pottersville” sequence, he wrote, George is not “seeing the world that would have been born”, but rather “the world as it is, in his time and also in our own.” [53] Nine years earlier, another Salon writer, Gary Kamiya, had expressed the opposition that “Pottersville rocks! “, Adding, “The gauzy, Currier-and-Ives veil Capra drapes over Bedford Falls has prevented viewers from grasping what has tiresome and frankly, toxic environment it is … We are all in Pottersville now.

The film ‘s elevation to the status of a television movie after its initial release, when it became a television staple during the Christmas season in the late 1970s. This came as a welcome surprise to Frank Capra and others involved with its production. “It’s the damnedest thing I’ve ever seen,” Capra told The Wall Street Journal in 1984. “The film has a life of its own now, and I can look at it like I had nothing to do with it. like a Parent Whose kid grows up to be president . I’m proud … but it’s the kid Who did the work. I did not Even think of it as a Christmas story When I first ran across it. I just liked the idea. ” [55]In a 1946 interview, Capra describes the film’s theme as “the individual’s belief in himself” and that he made it “to fight a modern trend toward atheism “. [55]

The movie’s positive reception HAS continued into the present, and review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes Currently overs to 94% “Certified Fresh” approval rating. The website’s critical consensus reads, “The vacation classic to define all holiday classics, It’s a Wonderful Life is one of a handful of movies worth an annual viewing.” [56]

Awards and honors

Prior to the release of LA It’s a Wonderful Life , Liberty Films mounted an extensive promotional campaign included a daily That advertisement highlighting one of the movie’s players, along with comments from reviewers. Jimmy Starr wrote, “If I was an Oscar, I’d elope with it’s a wonderful life lock, stock and barrel on the night of the Academy Awards”. The New York Daily Timesoffered an editorial in which it declared the film and James Stewart’s performance to be worthy of Academy Award consideration. [57]

It’s a Wonderful Life received five Academy Award nominations: [58]

Award result Nominee / Winner
Best Picture Nominated Frank Capra
Winner was Samuel Goldwyn – The Best Years of Our Lives
Best Director Nominated Frank Capra
Winner was William Wyler – The Best Years of Our Lives
Best Actor Nominated James Stewart
Winner was Fredric March – The Best Years of Our Lives
Best Film Editing Nominated William Hornbeck
Winner Daniel Mandell – The Best Years of Our Lives
Best Sound Recording Nominated John Aalberg
Winner was John P. Livadary – The Jolson Story
Technical Achievement Award Won Russell Shearman and Radio RKO Studio Special Effects Dept.
For the development of a new method of simulating falling snow on motion picture sets.

It’s a Wonderful Life won just the one Academy Award, in the Technical Achievement category for developing a new method of creating artificial snow. [59] Before It’s a Wonderful Life , fake movie snow was mostly made of white painted cornflakes. And it was so loud when stepped on any snow-filled scenes with dialogue to be re-dubbed afterwards. RKO studio’s head of special effects, Russell Sherman, a new compound, utilizing water, soap flakes, foamite and sugar. [60]

The Best Years of Our Lives , a drama about servicemen attempting to return to their pre-World War II lives, won most of the awards that year, for which It’s a Wonderful Life was nominated. (The award for “Best Sound Recording” was won by The Jolson Story .) The Best Years of Our Lives was also an outstanding commercial success, becoming the highest-grossing film of the decade, in contrast to the more modest initial box office returns of It’s a Wonderful Life . [61]

It’s a Wonderful Life received a Golden Globe Award :

Award result Winner
Best Director Won Frank Capra

Capra won the “Best Motion Picture Director” award from the Golden Globes , and a “CEC Award” from the Cinema Writers Circle in Spain , for Mejor Película Extranjera (Best Foreign Film). Jimmy Hawkins won a “Child Star Lifetime Achievement Award” from the Young Artist Awards in 1994; the award recognized his role as Tommy Bailey as his career, which lasted until the mid-1960s. [62]

American Film Institute lists

  • AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Movies – 11
  • AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Passions – 8
  • AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Heroes and Villains :
    • Mr. Potter – No. 6 Villain
    • George Bailey – No. 9 Hero
  • AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Songs :
    • “Buffalo Gal (Will not You Come Out Tonight)” – Nominated [63]
  • AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Movie Quotes :
    • “What is it you want, Mary? What do you want? You want the moon? Just say the word, and I’ll throw a lasso around it and pull it down.” – Nominated [64]
    • “To my big brother George, the richest man in town!” – Nominated [64]
    • “Look, Daddy.” Teacher says, “Every time has an angel gets his wings.” – Nominated [64]
  • AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Cheers – No. 1
  • AFI’s 100 Years … 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – No. 20
  • AFI’s 10 Top 10 – No. 3 Fantasy Movie

Release

Ownership and copyright issues

Ancillary rights

Liberty Films was purchased by Paramount Pictures , and remained a subsidiary until 1951. In 1955, M. & A. Alexander purchased the movie. This original key rights to the original syndication television, the original nitrate film elements , the music score, and the movie rights to the story on which the film is based, “The Greatest Gift”. [N 8] National Telefilm Associates(NTA) took over the rights to the film soon thereafter.

In spite of the lapsed copyright, television stations are still in the process of being copyrighted. [66] [67] ALTHOUGH the movie’s pictures HAD ENTERED the public domain, the movie’s story Was still protected by virtue of it being white has derivative work of the published story “The Greatest Gift” Whose copyright Was Properly Renewed by Philip Van Doren Stern in 1971. [68] [69] [N 9] The film became a favorite in the 1980s, possibly due to its repeated showings of local television stations. It was mentioned during the discussions on the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998.[68] [70]

In 1993, Republic Pictures , which was the successor to NTA, relied on the 1990 US Supreme Court ruling in Stewart v. Abend (which involved another Stewart film, Rear Window ) to enforce its claim to the copyright. While the film’s copyright had not been renewed, the Republic still owned the movie rights to “The Greatest Gift”; thus the plaintiffs were able to argue its status as a derivative work of a work still under copyright. [68] [71] NBC , since 1996, is licensed to show the movie on US network television, and traditionally shows it twice during the holidays, with one showing on Christmas Eve. Paramount (via parent company Viacom’s 1998 acquisition of Republic’ s then – parent, Spelling Entertainment ). [68] [72]

RKO is not one of the few RKO movies not yet controlled by Turner Entertainment / Warner Bros. in the USA. It is also one of two Capra films which have a Broadway Bill (originally from Columbia , remade by Paramount as High Riding in 1950). [68]

Colorization

Director Capra starts with Wilson Markle about HAVING Colorization, Inc., colorize It’s a Wonderful Life based one year enthusiastic response to the colorization of Topper from actor Cary Grant. [73] The company’s art director Brian Holmes Prepared 10 minutes of colorized footage from It’s a Wonderful Life for Capra to view, qui resulted in Capra signing a contract with Colorization, Inc., and his “enthusiastic AGREE [ly] to pay half the $ 260,000 cost of colorizing the movie and giving up the profits of a movie, Meet John Doe (1941) and Lady for a Day (1933) “.However, the film is believed to be caught in the marketplace, and the result is more important than that of the marketplace. Capra’s initial investment, eliminating its financial participation, and refusing outright to allow the director to exercise control over the colorization of his films, leading Capra to join in the campaign against the process. [73]

Three colorized versions have been produced. The first was released by Hal Roach Studios in 1986. The second was authorized and produced by the film’s permanent owner, Republic Pictures, in 1989. Both Capra and Stewart took a critical stand on the colorized editions. [74] The Hal Roach color version was re-released in 1989 to VHS through the cooperation of Video Treasures . A third colorized version was produced by Legend Films and released on DVD in 2007 with the approval of Capra’s estate. quote needed ]

Home media

VHS

Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, when the film was still under public domain status, It’s A Wonderful Life was released by a variety of home video companies. Among the companies that released the movie on the video before Republic Pictures are in the Media Video (which would later become Media Home Entertainment ), Video Communications Class (under its Video Film Classics label), GoodTimes Video Home and Video Treasures (now Anchor Bay) Entertainment). After Republic reclaimed the rights to the film, all unofficial VHS copies of the movie in print were destroyed. [71] Artisan Entertainment (under license from Republic) took over in the mid-1990s. Artisan was later sold toLions Gate Entertainment , qui continued to hold US home video rights up to late 2005 When They reverted to Paramount, aussi Who owns video rights Throughout Region 4 ( Latin America and Australia ) and in France . Video rights in the rest of the world are held by different companies; for example, the UK rights are with Universal Studios .

Technological first: CD-ROM

In 1993, Kinesoft Development, with the support of Republic Pictures, released It’s a Wonderful Life as one of the first commercial feature-length movies on CD-ROM for the Windows PC. Windows 3.1 ). Predicting commercial DVDs by several years, it includes such features as the ability to follow along with the complete shooting script as the movie was playing. [75] [76] [N 10]

Given the state of video playback on the PC at the time of its release, It’s a Wonderful Life for Windows, another video on a computer. Prior to its release, Windows could only play back approx. 32,000 frames of video, or about 35 minutes at 15 frames per second. Working with Microsoft, Kinesoft was able to enhance the video features of the movie – all of this on a PC with a 486SX processor and only 8 MB of RAM. [77]

Computer Gaming World said in April 1994 that “the picture quality still has a way to go before it does television standards”, but was “A noble effort” that would “please fans of the film”. [78]

DVD and Blu-ray

The film has seen multiple DVD releases since the availability of the DVD format. In the autumn of 2001, Republic issued the movie twice, ounce in August, and again in the same year. On October 31, 2006, Paramount released a newly restored “60th Anniversary Edition”. On November 13, 2007, Paramount released a two-disc “special edition” DVD of the film that contains both the original theatrical black-and-white version, and a new, third colorized version, produced by Legend Films using the latest colorization technology . On November 3, 2009, Paramount released a DVD version with a “Collector’s Edition Ornament”, and a Blu-ray edition.

Adaptations in other media

The Film Was twice adapté for radio in 1947, first we Lux Radio Theater (March 10) and tab then on The Screen Guild Theater (December 29), then again on the Screen Guild Theater broadcast of March 15, 1951. James Stewart and Donna Reed their roles for all three radio productions. Stewart also starred in the May 8, 1949 radio adaptation presented on the Screen Director’s Playhouse .

A musical stage adaptation of the film, titled A Wonderful Life , was written by Sheldon Harnick and Joe Raposo . This version was first performed at the University of Michigan in 1986, but was planned by Philip Van Doren Stern. It was performed in Washington, DC by Arena Stage in 1991, and had revivals in the 21st century, including a staged concert in New York City in 2005 and several productions by regional theaters.

Another musical stage adaptation of the film, titled It’s a Wonderful Life – The Musical , was written by Bruce Greer and Keith Ferguson. This version premiered at the Majestic Theater , Dallas , Texas in 1998. It was an annual Christmas show at the theater for five years. It has been performed all around the United States. [79]

The film was also adapted to a play by James W. Rodgers. It was first performed on December 15, 1993 at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School. The play opens with George Bailey contemplating suicide and then goes back to major moments in his life. Many of the scenes from the movie are only mentioned in the play rather than actually dramatized. For example, in the opening scene Clarence just mentions George having saved his brother Harry after the latter had fallen through the ice. [80]

It’s a Wonderful Life: A Live Radio Play , a stage adaptation presented as a 1940s radio show, was adapted by Joe Landry and has been produced around the United States since 1997. The script is published by Playscripts, Inc.

In 1997, PBS aired Merry Christmas, George Bailey , taped from a live performance of the 1947 Lux Radio Theater script at the Pasadena Playhouse . The presentation, which benefited the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation , featured Bill Pullman as George, Nathan Lane as Clarence, Martin Landau as Mr. Potter, Penelope Ann Miller as Mary, and Sally Field as Mother Bailey. [81]

Philip Grecian’s 2006 radio play based on the movie It’s a Wonderful Life is a faithful adaptation, now in its third incarnation, by local theaters in Canada . [82]

In a June 2011 interview, John McDaniel told Saint Louis Magazine , “I’m in the throes of writing a musical version … right now, working with Kathie Lee Gifford , who’s doing the lyrics. character: Is it George, or the old guy who runs the bank? What do they want, what are they trying to do, what is the mood of that – is it staccato, are they agitated, is it a ballad? [83]

The Last Temptation of Clarence Odrow is a novel written by John Pierson . The novel imagines the future lives of various characters if George had not survived his jump on the river. [84]

Potential sequel

A purported sequel was in development for a 2015 release, and was called It’s a Wonderful Life: The Rest of the Story . It was to be written by Bob Farnsworth and Martha Bolton and follow the angel of George Bailey’s daughter Zuzu (played once again by Karolyn Grimes ), as she teaches Bailey’s evil grandson how different the world would have been if he had never been born. Producers were considered directors and hoped to shoot the film with a $ 25- $ 35 million budget in Louisiana early in 2014. [85]

The film was premiered and produced by Star Partners and Hummingbird Productions, neither of whom were affiliated with Paramount, owners of the original film (Farnsworth claims that it was a wonderful life in the public domain). Later, a spokesman said that they were not granting permission to make the film, “To date, these individuals have not obtained any of the necessary rights, and we would take all appropriate steps to protect those rights,” the spokesperson said. [86] No further developmental plans have since arisen.

Popular culture

It’s a Wonderful Life in the Modern Media. Due to the proliferation of these references, a few examples will suffice to illustrate the film’s impact.

  • The Sesame Street Muppets Characters Bert and Ernie share their names with the cop and the taxicab driver in the movie. Longtime Muppets writer and puppeteer Jerry Juhl said it was coincidental. [87] The Elmo Saves Christmas episode (1996), which featured a clip from the film, pokes fun at the persistent reports of a connection, with George calls Bert and Ernie by name. [87]
  • Stephen Jay Gould’s book Wonderful Life: The Shale Burgess and the Nature of History takes its title from the movie. The book proposes that the evolution of life, rewound and replayed multiple times, just as life without George Bailey is Pottersville, not Bedford Falls.
  • In “It’s a hopeful life”, the Christmas 2011 episode of Raising Hope , Jimmy dreams of a life for her family, Sabrina and accidental death for Maw Maw the “Clarence” of this story. The episode’s climax has Jimmy running down the main street, shouting “Merry Christmas, movie house!” In the evening, this is the second time Cloris Leachman has played the angel, having previously starred as Clara in the 1977 TV remake It Happened One Christmas .
  • In an episode of Mork & Mindy , after Mork disrupts one of Mindy’s dates, he has Orson’s show what Mindy (and her family’s) lives would have been a part of it. After seeing their lives turned over, Mork begs Orson to return to the real world. When it’s still alive, he exclaims, “Oh, it’s a wonderful life!”
  • It’s a Wonderful Life features prominently in the literature of Red Dwarf by Grant Naylor , most notably the Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers and Better Than Life . In Infinity , during his five-week love affair with Kristine Kochanski it is revealed that It’s a Wonderful Life is the favorite movie of Dave Lister. In the third and last part of the book, named Back to Earth, under the influence of the Better Than Life game Lister ends up living in an exact replica of 1940s Bedford Falls, eternally stuck on Christmas Eve, and is known to the townsfolk as “George”. He also encounters a selection of the more relevant supporting characters from the film, and references to film events and locations. In the beginning of the second book, Better Than Life , Lister’s Bedford Falls is destroyed by Arnold Rimmer , whose mental state has become erratic. Unable to cope with good things happening to him, his mind begins to destroy the life of everyone around him, resulting in Bedford Falls altering to more closely resembles Pottersville.

Antecedent

In a 1997 review, film historian James Berardinelli commented on the parallels between this film and the classic Charles Dickens tale A Christmas Carol . In both stories, a man revisits his life and death potential (or non-existence) with the help of supernatural agents, culminating in a joyous epiphany and a renewed view of his life. [88]

Spin-offs

The film was remade as 1977 television movie It Happened One Christmas . Lionel Chetwynd based on the screenplay on the original Van Doren Stern short story and the 1946 screenplay. This remake employed gender-reversal, with Marlo Thomas as the protagonist Mary Bailey, Rogers Wayne as George Hatch, Cloris and Leachman Clara Oddbody. [N 11] Leachman received her second Emmy nomination for this role. In a significant departure from His Earlier roles, Orson Welles Was cast as Mr. Potter. [N 12]Following initial positive reviews, the made-for-television movie was rebroadcast twice in 1978 and 1979, but has not been shown since the national re-broadcasts, nor issued in home media. [N 13] [89]

In 1991, another made-for-television movie called Clarence starred Robert Carradine in a new tale of the helpful angel. [90] [91]

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